General Items

All posts in the General Items category

The 10 greatest African leaders

Published October 31, 2016 by betterzambia

Africa has seen many leaders. Some of them have successfully energized their followers and have made a positive impact in their lives.

Here, we look at The 10 Greatest African Leaders of all time.

10) Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf

Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf is the 24th and current President of Liberia. She is Africa’s first elected female head of state. She won the 2005 presidential election and assumed the office on 18 January 2006. Many people have praised her for bringing stability back to Liberia after years of civil war. She was awarded the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. Under her able leadership, people of Liberia can expect a glorious future for their country.

9) Samora Machel

Samora Machel was the first President of Mozambique. He served the country as its president from the time it gained its independence in 1975 till he died in 1986. He was a military commander and a revolutionary socialist. He was a thoughtful leader and was respected by the people of Mozambique. His actions and ideology are helping many people of Mozambique even today. He died mysteriously in a plane crash.

8) Jomo Kenyatta

Jomo Kenyatta was the first President of Kenya. Kenya gained independence in 1963. Jomo Kenyatta served as the leader of Kenya from the time it became independent till his death in 1978. He was the Prime Minister between 1963 and 1964, and President between 1964 and 1978. He brought stability and economic growth to Kenya. He pursued a pro-Western, anti-communist economic philosophy and foreign policy. He also oversaw his country’s admission to the UN.

7) Thomas Sankara

Credit: Alain Nogues / CorbisThomas Isidore Noel Sankara served as the President of Burkina Faso between 1983 and 1987. He seized power in 1983 at the age of 33 in an endeavor to eliminate corruption and the dominance of the former French colonial power. Many people call him “African Che Guevara.” He was a military captain, pan-African theorist, Marxist revolutionary and feminist. He was an icon for many young Africans in the 1980. Even today he is a hero for many people in Burkina Faso. They praise his integrity and selflessness. Sankara was assassinated by an armed group on October 15, 1987.

6) Patrice Lumumba

Patrice Emery Lumumba founded the mainstream Mouvement national congolais (MNC) party. He played a major role in campaigning for independence from Belgium. He was the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Congo. This Congolese independence leader called for national unity and overall African independence. After the nation fell under the control of military leader Joseph Mobutu, this great leader was arrested and taken to Katanga, where he was killed on 17 January 1961. Unfortunately United Nations did not intervene to save him.

5) Julius Nyerere

Julius Kambarage Nyerere is one of Africa’s most respected figures. He was the first President of Tanzania and held the office from 29 October 1964 to 5 November 1985. He voluntarily stepped down in 1985. He was premier when Tanganyika was granted internal self-government, and was made president on independence in 1961. In 1964 he successfully negotiated the union of Zanzibar and Tanganyika, resulting in today’s Tanzania. This great leader guarded himself against corruption. He was respected by many world leaders of his time.
4) Haile Selassie

Haile Selassie was a member of the Solomonic Dynasty. He served Ethiopia as its regent from 1916 to 1930 and as its emperor from 1930 to 1974. He fended off an invasion by Italy. In 1936, at the League of Nations, he condemned the use of chemical weapons by Italy against his people during the Second Italo-Ethiopean War. He played a significant role in starting the Organization of African Unity. His views resulted in Ethiopia becoming a charter member of the UN.
3) Alpha Oumar Konare

Alpha Oumar Konare served as the President of Mali for two terms between 1992 and 2002. During his tenure as president, he boosted the country’s economy and fostered democracy. He was the chairperson of African Union between 2003 and 2008. He relentlessly worked for peace and integration in the West African region. He served as the president of ECOWAS in 1999 and UEMOA in 2000.
2) Kwame Nkrumah

Kwame Nkrumah was the leader of Ghana and its predecessor state, the Gold Coast, from 1951 to 1966. He was the first Prime Minister of Ghana. He was one of the founding members of the Organization of African Unity, which later became African Union. He was an outspoken advocate of Pan-Africanism.
1) Nelson Mandela

nelson-mandela-greatest-african-leaders-710x404Nelson Mandela is best known for his involvement in South Africa’s anti-apartheid movement. Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, this leader of international repute directed a campaign of peaceful, nonviolent defiance against South African government and its racist policies. Later he served as the President of South Africa from 10 May 1994 to 14 June 1999. Today he is regarded as a symbol of global peace and he is considered the best leader in the history of Africa. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.

Credit: http://www.africaranking.com/

Advertisements

Top ten sites for downloading free Zambian music, music videos plus more

Published October 8, 2016 by betterzambia

Here are the Top ten sites for downloading free Zambian music, music videos, entertainment news plus more.

1) http://www.afrofire.com/

2) http://www.indimba.com/

3) http://www.ckmusicpromo.com/

4) http://www.zambianmusic.net

5) http://www.zamtouch.co/

6) http://www.zedjams.com/

7) http://www.zambianmusicblog.co/

8) http://www.zambiantunes.com/

9) http://www.itsretunes.com/

10) https://zambianbeatboxafrica.wordpress.com/music-downloads/

Enjoy free downloads….

An Open Letter to Hon Dora Siliya, the Minister of Agriculture

Published October 8, 2016 by betterzambia

OPEN LETTER TO Hon DORA SILIYA

Dear Hon Dora Siliya,

Greetings in the name of Jesus Christ our LORD and saviour. dora-siliya-press-2015-624x531Hon Dora Siliya, our newly appointed minister of agriculture, the citizenry are asking when is the recruitment exercise for agriculture officers for both diploma and certificate candidates?

It has been ages since the last recruitment exercise and this has negatively affected the effectiveness of service delivery and agriculture information dissemination to farmers due to the farmer/officer ratio which has lately been compromised.

The number of farmers keeps on growing everyday exceeding the number of officers hence the need to recruit some more officers who will enhance the ministry’s work, please look into this issue and together we conquer poverty.

Yours truly, Valentine M Chibale.

Inkoko: A sign of respect

Published August 7, 2016 by betterzambia

chicken pieces

dinner is served

When prepared for in-laws only inondo (gizzard) should be put inside representing
hubby’s testicles. The liver should never be included because it symbolizeswife’s labias. Amasako represents amaso, “limo limo iliso lyandi” and when removing them, the chicken skin does not have to ripe just as you are not supposed to injure partner when shaving, the feathers are not supposed to thrown everywhere palubansa, they are to be disposed off well just as we are supposed to diposed the amaso well.

When the chicken is being prepared, the neck should be fitted in the space where the neck starts or the neck will be an insult because it will represent an erect penis! Positioning, the chicken should be laid sidewards (kabafu). When giving your hubby or visitors relish, thou shall not serve 3 pieces of relish! The gizzard and neck should be for hubby. The chisunsunya (back) should be the last piece to be given to hubby to symbolize that the chicken has finished in the pot.

Chickens feet, akakasa bana mayo we should be mindful of our movements (that’s why a prepared chicken never has its feet, kuputula akakasa kakuseyelako) and also our feet should be used well to palaula in search of food for our family and also our feet should never be used like a chicken muku pasaula ifintu especially hubby’s family. On the feet we remove the outer part of the claws, to represent hubby’s nails i always have to keep them trimmed.

The thighs, legs, wings represent my thighs, hands and legs and legs for holding him when doing the job in the bedroom. The chickens back, that’s my back on which i lay when making love. The chicken breast is where my hubby sleeps when making love.

Now we get to the head, the chickens eyes represent my eyes, they should only be able to see my hubby noti kunkala nachi mansomanso, the ears represent my ears, mfwile ukushinka amatwi, mfwile ukunasha ifya kumfwa umfwa just like the chickens ear’s are so small and can not be seen! The two growths under the beak represent my labias, i shud have labias as a woman. The growth on top of the head represents my clitoris for stimulation! The beak of the chicken represents ;the mouth, that’s the tool a chicken uses for fighting and inflicting pain on others, i should be able to use my mouth well, ichasa kanwa bana mayo and the words we use that hurt other people!

#‎FROM‬ MUSENGE Z MUNGWALA

Brain drain in Zambia

Published January 30, 2013 by betterzambia

Everywhere you go in the world today you will find Zambians that are, in some cases, doing extremely well. I visited a website recently called Mwape.com which is done by one of our very own Zambians who is in the US. He has a list of very educated Zambians that are working all over the world.

As I read the list I was absolutely amazed at the level of genius and achievement we have as a country. There was a diversity of people from a highly successful businessman in China to professors in universities and prestigious organisations all over the world.

Well, I started thinking “that’s great, I am happy for their personal achievements and success and undoubtedly they have worked very hard to be where they are.” But the question that then came to mind was – “what difference has their success made to us as a country?”

Unfortunately I found myself struggling to find even a few good examples of that difference. So in the end I had to conclude that they have probably not made as big a difference as they are capable of making.

So I am posing a challenge today to those Zambians that are outside the country and doing well. What are you doing to help change Zambia?

Let me give you an example of what I mean. Dr. Munanga Mwandila, a close friend of mine, is currently working in New Zealand. Now he is doing well and could have just sat back and enjoyed his success as so many people do. But he saw the needs he had left back home in Zambia and helped to start a project called “The Mutima Project.” This project aims to bring expertise from New Zealand to perform free cardiac operations on people that need them in Zambia, but can’t afford them. Over the next few years they aim to perform many heart operations.

So here is a Zambian who is abroad, but is making a difference to the lives of so many disadvantaged Zambians.

I know many of those outside the country probably left because they were unhappy with conditions in the country. But after leaving, is that all you are going to do? Are you not going to help change those very conditions you were unhappy about?

Quite often when people go out of the country they will complain about how bad things are back home. Well, in my view, if you are not doing something to change things then you probably have little right to complain in the first place. Why? Well, because in a sense, if you are not doing something about it you are basically abandoning the country and hoping things will somehow sort themselves out. In my view, that may be even worse than the very politicians we criticise as having destroyed the country.

So I am shouting out to the professors, engineers, doctors, economists, lawyers, nurses, teachers and the like that are doing well outside of Zambia. Let your expertise, experience and knowledge make a difference to us as a country. Help us to come up with solutions to the challenges we face. Bring some of that knowledge and experience back home.

Now, by that I don’t mean that you have to be physically here. You can do it from where you are. I am not just talking about sending money home either as most people usually thinks. More than the money, it is your expertise and solutions that we need. Money is a part of it, but without it being channelled in the right places you might as well flush it down the toilet. Yes, it’s okay to help your own extended family as many are doing and that is commendable, but what about helping the bigger Zambian family?

So to Zambians out there – wherever you are and whatever you do, start something back home that will help others and that will help to make this country a better place. So you or your children can someday return home to a country you can be proud of.

Loss of Intellectuals explained

African countries like Zambia are continually losing the very people they need to facilitate their economic, social and technological progress. This is perhaps the main reason why President Michael Sata recently called on Zambians living in Botswana, and in all countries worldwide as a matter of fact, to return home and help develop the country.

Between 1974 and 1985, for example, over 12,146 technical and professional personnel were admitted to the United States from various countries in Africa. And between 1993 and 1995, the United States admitted 32,317 of the continent’s skilled human resources. According to the World Bank Group in a 2005 publication, nearly 70,000 qualified Africans leave their home countries every year to work in industrialized nations.

And, according to the Ethiopia-based United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the African continent lost a third of its skilled professional personnel through emigration in less than two decades prior to 2005, and has had to replace them with over 100,000 expatriate professionals at an annual cost of US$4 billion.

Clearly, this represents a significant loss to a continent that is in dire need of skilled professionals to facilitate and expedite the process of socio-economic development. Without large pools of such technical and professional talent, African countries are not likely to attain meaningful levels of socio-economic development.

Causes of the Brain Drain:

There are many factors obtaining in countries which are affected by the brain drain which have contributed to the exodus of skilled talent, including poor conditions of service, human rights abuses, nepotism and favoritism, deliberate disregard for local talent, scarcity of jobs, limited access to education, poor health care services, a high level of crime and partisan civil police, and the fear of losing valued relationships developed in foreign countries.

Considered from the standpoint of the origin of trained and skilled emigrants, the foregoing causes may be referred to as the “push factors” of the flight of human capital. The inverses of the causes are essentially the “pull factors” from the point of view of emigrants’ host countries.

Effects of the Skills Drain:

The impacts of the brain drain phenomenon include its adverse effects on a country’s prospects for technological advancement, its numbing effects on politics and governance in the emigrants’ home country, and its ghastly effects on the provision healthcare.

One would perhaps do well to cite some of the salient benefits associated with the flight of professionals from the African continent. In Ghana, citizens working abroad are accounting for the fourth largest source of foreign currency after cocoa, gold and tourism. The foreign currency remittances to the country have become more significant than development aid, which is normally delivered with a lot of conditions attached.

Kenya provides another good example of an African country that is benefiting from huge foreign currency remittances to the country by citizens who are resident in foreign countries. In 2008, for example, the country’s central bank recorded a 6.6 percent growth in remittances by Kenyans abroad from US$573.6 million the previous year to US$611 million.

And, if the emigration includes an entire family, the family would generally be better off. Besides, the exposure of emigrants to outside ideas is itself an engine of growth, because having a significant portion of the population in foreign countries means that individuals who are resident in the emigrants’ native countries would benefit from information flows through visits, the Internet or telephone discussions with the emigrants.

Moreover, some of the professionals who may initially emigrate often return to their home countries with new skills and ideas to help develop the economies of their respective countries.

Further, emigrants generally work in diverse socio-economic settings where they interact with people from different cultural, ethnic and/or religious backgrounds. This is potentially benign for emigrants’ native countries where ethnic or religion-based conflicts are common as it is likely to make the emigrants less bigoted upon their return to their countries and contribute to the harmonization of relations among cultural, religious and ethnic groupings.

Additionally, unhindered migration of a country’s citizens is a reflection of its observance of Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted in 1948 by the United Nations General Assembly, which provides for the following: (a) everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each country; and (b) everyone has the right to leave any country, including his or her own, and to return to his or her country.

It is also in observance of Article 12(2) of the African Union’s African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, which states as follows: “Every individual shall have the right to leave any country including his own, and to return to his country. This right … [shall] only be subject to restrictions, provided for by law for the protection of national security, law and order, public health or morality.”

For governments and private institutions which hire trained personnel from other countries, professional flight is a benign phenomenon; it makes it possible for them to benefit from the knowledge and skills of people whose training they did not finance. They reap where they did not sow, so to speak!

With respect to foreign currency remittances, however, it is perhaps important to note that such remittances have helped to fund terrorism, civil wars and liberation struggles in collapsed or failed states. During the 1980s, for example, a large portion of remittances by Somalia’s citizens in the Diaspora made it possible for rural guerrillas to procure arms used in toppling the country’s government in 1991.

Nevertheless, it has long been recognized that any adverse consequences of skilled emigration (including remittances which have been used to fund diabolical activities) might be partly or wholly offset by remittances intended to serve benign purposes, as well as the return of emigrants who could have migrated back to their native countries with enhanced skills.

The Solutions:

There are many ways in which countries affected by the exodus of their native professionals can address the problem, including the following:

1) Peace and Stability: It is not possible for any country to attain mean­ingful socio-economic development that would provide a satisfactory standard of living for would-be emigrants in the absence of sustained peace and stability. This should be obvious because the war effort disrupts produc­tive socio-economic activities, and diverts es­sential resources away from the pursuit of a country’s goals and aspira­tions.

It is, there­fore, incumbent upon each and every political, tribal and military leader in the African Union to be mindful of the need to find ways and means of forestalling war and insta­bility. Among other things, there is a need for political leaders and their constitu­ents to embrace the following ele­ments of democratic gover­nance: account­abili­ty, tran­sparency, adequate checks and bal­ances, a free press, respect for the rule of law, a viable mech­anism for peacefully replacing incompe­tent leaders, and respect for human rights.

Moreover, there is a need for serious consider­ation of ethnic and other interests in the distri­bution of power, educational facilities, health services, and so forth.

2) Low-Interest Loans: The effort to stem the exodus of trained nationals to foreign countries may also require a country’s national and local governments to grant low-interest loans to professionals based in foreign countries so that they can return to the country to start and manage their own business undertakings. Such loans also need to be extended to locally based professionals to lure them from migrating to foreign countries for employment.

3) An Enabling Environment: Unless the factors that initially lead to migration are redressed, the exodus of skilled Africans will continue to haunt governments and employer-organizations on the African continent. There is, therefore, a need for African governments to find viable ways and means of tackling the problems of human rights abuses, armed conflicts, inadequate social services, and high rates of unemployment.

4) Feasible Policy Initiatives: There are many other important policy initiatives which countries affected by the exodus of trained personnel need to consider in their quest to address the problem and its effects on socio-economic development. Such initiatives may include the following:

(a) Tax proposals requiring native professionals trained through the public treasury to pay a certain percentage of their incomes earned abroad to their home-country governments;

(b) Generation of restrictive policies aimed at delaying emigration – such as by adding extra years to medical students’ training, requiring doctors and other professionals to stay on for a number of years to ‘pay back’ what they ‘owe’ to society, or to incorporate the delay within the training period, thus ensuring that certification follows rather than precedes a spell of public service;

(c) Initiation of international agreements requiring employers in foreign countries who may hire professionals trained through public resources to reimburse the home governments for financial and material resources committed to the training of the professionals;

(d) Introduction of retention allowances for skilled personnel on government payroll;

(e) Provision for research grants for academic staff in government-supported educational institutions;

(f) Provision for car-ownership and home-ownership schemes;

(g) Upward salary adjustments for employees on government payroll; and/or

(h) Assistance with passages for emigrant citizens wishing to return to their native countries by governments in such countries.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, a proactive strategy for redressing the brain drain by African leaders is needed, because prevention of the exodus of technical and professional personnel is actually better than cure, so to speak. Such a strategy would require leaders to pursue initiatives designed to prevent the exodus of professionals rather than waste resources on bolstering the return of indigenous talent.

In all, African leaders are going to have to work extra hard in ensuring that native professional talent is enticed to work locally in order for such talent to contribute to the development of native countries. If leaders cannot step up their efforts in this endeavor, they should not be surprised when they continue to lose their highly trained natives to countries which are relatively more developed.

In passing, African leaders need to guard themselves against attributing their own failure and mediocrity in governance to what have become traditional and convenient scapegoats for some of them; that is: colonialism, neo-colonialism, globalization, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), among others.

These are mere scapegoats which should not be faulted for the bloated national governments on the continent which cannot live within their means, the electoral malpractices which block cadres of competent potential leaders from the realm of national leadership, or the hemorrhage of public resources through corruption and misappropriation.

The people are fed up of the blame game, and, therefore, expect leaders who have lamentably failed to address the socio-economic problems facing their countries to guard against blaming external factors as having caused such problems.

Main Source: Kyambalesa, Henry, Emigration of African Professionals: Causes, Effects and Solutions (Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing, April 2012).

The untold story of the demonised Mohammad Gaddafi

Published January 30, 2013 by betterzambia

Yes, Gaddafi (MHSRIP) made mistakes and one of them was over-staying in power.The media has successfully painted Gaddafi as a hard-core dictator, tyrant whatever you want to call him. However, the media as usual has also failed to show the kind, giving Gaddafi we never heard of. Gaddafi unlike most dictators I will refrain from naming them has managed to show his humane side, the very side we dream of seeing in other dictators who just talk and talk. I consider Libyans lucky to a certain extent and one wonders with the new democratic rule they cry for will it improve or worsen life for them. Yes, Gaddafi has spent millions of Libya`s money on personal ventures but is the average Libyan poor? We know others who take a country and destroy it until you feel like there is no hope of restoring this country… looting some prefer to call it. Did Gaddafi loot Libya in any way?

1. There is no electricity bill in Libya; electricity is free for all its citizens.

2. There is no interest on loans, banks in Libya are state-owned and loans given to all its citizens at 0% interest by law.

3. Home considered a human right in Libya – Gaddafi vowed that his parents would not get a house until everyone in Libya had a home. Gaddafi’s father has died while him, his wife and his mother are still living in a tent.

4. All newlyweds in Libya receive $60,000 Dinar (US$50,000) by the government to buy their first apartment so to help start up the family.

Traditional wedding in Tripoli, Libya

5. Education and medical treatments are free in Libya. Before Gaddafi only 25% of Libyans are literate. Today the figure is 83%.

6. Should Libyans want to take up farming career, they would receive farming land, a farming house, equipments, seeds and livestock to kick-start their farms – all for free.

7. If Libyans cannot find the education or medical facilities they need in Libya, the government funds them to go abroad for it – not only free but they get US$2,300/mth accommodation and car allowance.

8. In Libyan, if a Libyan buys a car, the government subsidized 50% of the price.

9. The price of petrol in Libya is $0.14 per liter.

10. Libya has no external debt and its reserves amount to $150 billion – now frozen globally.

Great Man-Made River project in Libya… $27 billion

11. If a Libyan is unable to get employment after graduation the state would pay the average salary of the profession as if he or she is employed until employment is found.

12. A portion of Libyan oil sale is, credited directly to the bank accounts of all Libyan citizens.

13. A mother who gave birth to a child receive US$5,000

14. 40 loaves of bread in Libya costs $ 0.15

15. 25% of Libyans have a university degree

16. Gaddafi carried out the world’s largest irrigation project, known as the Great Man-Made River project, to make water readily available throughout the desert country.

Which other dictator has done much good to his people besides. Most important of all, he was fight against Africa’s involvement in the new world economic order. Confirm from Youtube. gha

One African leader who spoke bad English

Published January 30, 2013 by betterzambia

This broke my ribs, I really laughed. (absolutely true)

Memorable Speeches of Idi Amin, third President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979.

After a luncheon hosted by the Queen in London in his honour, the former Ugandan leader Idi Amin had this to say for his vote of thanks. (Personally I cannot believe this is true.)

“Mr Queen, Sir, Horrible Ministers, invented guests, ladies under gentlemen. I thank the Queen very plenty for what he has done to me. I tell you, I have eaten so much that I am now fed up with malicious meal.

Before I continue, I would kindly ask you to open the windows so that the climate may get in plenty. But before I go back I must invert Mr Queen to my country and I can assure you, Mr Queen that when you come, I shall revenge to you. You will eat a full cow and I will work very difficult to make sure that you will
come back with a very full stomach.

For now I am sorry that I have just made a short call on you. The next time I will make a long one possible for a full moon. Thank you for letting me undress you in front of all the disgusting people.”

The speech below was also allegedly made by him. “Ladies and Women, my beloved husbands and men in this general assembly I am thank you very difficult for your kind to forgive me this hour to talk about Africa and my country which is in Uganda. First I am Field MArshal Dr Al Haj Idi Amin Dada the life President of my country I am apologised because I have not deaded Archbishop Jamani Luwum when so many people tell me so many questions about him. His death on my behalf was happened with accident which was in the car when he walked with it. So again let me teach that as far as I am knowing and even the two Ministers all Oboth-Ofumbi and Oryema was all of the two deaded in one of that very accident. So I am not mistake you see.

Another words is for the order in my country in Uganda. The Press Newsmen which you can all look them here will wanted to know the law orders of my country. They have inquiring me many questions on because my policemen don’t catch people in court while they have just them lost them on the way. No this is not the right yet all of them who are catched by my fellow policemen are removed for court. When the court does not find them good enough and tis them with all mistakes beginning from one month to ten years with even above. So we attempt people in court before we die them in prisons and those you understand about them dead are if they travel with care and they don’t find control and miss in the bush where they previously dead themself as my men invent their death. Uganda is a peace loving brother country when people enjoy as is they are in another country. This is the true about one country.

Dr Kurt Waldheim you are very beautiful in one of these idihusbands. I think you are this beauty to look what is going in South Africa and Rhodesia. I am sending two hours to whites as if they choose freedom to African Brothers or you will not blame me and I take a wondering action to blow them.

Lass of that I am thank your lunch which is smelly good. I am again fed up with it and I have admitted to revenge when bothe of you are invented by Uganda. Thank you very hard an we shall collide everywhere else in internal.”

When the Queen later asked the journalists present what on earth Amin had said, they replied that it was in a language similar to English, but that was all they could say.


My main aim of this post is to introduce some great African leaders of all time in the next series. In my opinion it includes
1) Quett Masire (Botswana)
2) Nelson Mandela (South Africa)
3) Mohammad Ghadafi (Libya) yes him
4) Thomas Sankara (Burkina Faso, meaning Land of the Upright Men
5) Levy Mwanawasa (Zambia
6) Kwame Nhrumah (Ghana)
7) Alpha Konare (Mali)
8) YOU, my reader

%d bloggers like this: